ANDIGENA HYPOGLAUCA PDF

The subspecies Andigena hypoglauca hypoglauca is found in the mountains from central Colombia to eastern Ecuador. The other subspecies, Andigena. Grey-breasted Mountain Toucan (Andigena hypoglauca hypoglauca), , Bernabe Lopez-Lanus, , , Colombia, Finca La Carbonera ( canon. Avibase taxonomic concepts (current): Grey-breasted Mountain-Toucan ( Andigena hypoglauca) [version 1] Avibase taxonomic concepts v. 01 (August ).

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Grey-breasted mountain toucans are found in the northern and hypoblauca Andes Mountains of South America, from central Columbia to southeastern Peru. They are an eastern-slope species and therefore are found mostly on the eastern side of the Andes Mountains, but in Columbia they also occur on the western slope of the Central Andes. The subspecies Andigena hypoglauca hypoglauca is found in the mountains from central Colombia to eastern Ecuador.

The other subspecies, Andigena hypoglauca lateralisis found in the Andes from eastern Ecuador to Peru.

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Grey-breasted mountain toucans live in wet, temperate, montane forest areas, including forest borders, wooded gullies, and stunted woodlands near treeline. They are uncommon hypoglaua local in these areas. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are arboreal and are often seen in tall emergent trees. This species lives at higher altitudes than nearly all other toucans, generally between and meters above sea level.

Although some are found at the same altitude as black-billed mountain toucans Andigena nigrirostristhey do not occur together. Occasionally grey-breasted mountain toucans are found at lower altitudes; for example in some places in Peru they can be found at an elevation of meters and in Ecuador at meters above sea level. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are usually 46 to 48 centimeters in length, moderately large for toucans.

They have a black cap, nape, and face, green-tinged brown back, dark greener wings, and dark grey-blue underparts. In addition, the hindcollar is pale blue, the rump is bright yellow, the tail blackish to brown, with chestnut tips to the central pairs of rectrices, the thighs are chestnut, and the undertail coverts red.

The bare circumorbital skin is dark blue, paler blue at the base of the bill, the eyes pale yellow to brown, depending on subspecies see below. The sexes are monomorphic, although females have a shorter bill. Young of this species are duller, with muted colors. Only a few physical traits differentiate the two subspecies. The flat wing range of males is to mm, the tails are The typical adult male wing measurements range from to mm.

Their tails range from to mm and their bills range from 88 to mm in length. Haffer, ; del Hoyo, et al. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are thought to breed from December to February in Colombia and from June to November in Ecuador and Peru. It is suspected that at these times in each region the number of plants that bear fruit is very high. There are no specific records of grey-breasted mountain toucan breeding behavior, nests or eggs. However, many generalizations have been made about other, similar toucans.

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Generally, mountain toucans breed in pairs, not groups. When mating they are not known to do anything elaborate. In some cases copulation occurs without a mating ritual. Their colors and markings do not change seasonally but are thought to be important in courtship. The most common mating ritual is courtship feeding, which is performed by all species of toucans.

In captivity large toucans will kill other toucans of the same species if they are in the same cage once breeding has begun.

None of this information is known. Other species of toucans lay between one and five eggs daily. Copulation still occurs during the laying cycle. In many cases the female will incubate the eggs more than the male. Data for incubation periods are only available for eleven species of toucans. The nestling period for all toucans seems to range between 40 and 60 days.

It is rare for young under the age of one year to breed. In some cases, young are forced out of their family group. Both parents care for the young.

When the eggs hatch the young are naked and blind. Typically piciforms have short incubation periods but a long nestling period during which the parents brood and hypotlauca their young.

Generally, adult toucans bring food to the nest either in their throat, stomach, or more often their bill. The parents use their bills as well to remove waste from the nest.

No specific information is known about parental investment of grey-breasted mountain toucans. If breeding occurs in pairs, then presumably both parents contribute to the care and protection of their offspring.

ADW: Andigena hypoglauca: INFORMATION

There is no data for the longevity of toucans in the wild. However, in captivity they routinely live for twenty years or more. Toucans are social birds, usually being found in pairs or small groups.

When toucans fly from one area to another, first one individual will fly and the others will follow one by one, with some straggling behind. However, they do all eventually make it to the same destination.

Larger species of toucans have a flapping and gliding flight. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are arboreal, spending most time in tree canopies. The song of grey-breasted mountain toucans is a loud, low, slowly hypoglacua, rather cat-like “gweeeeeeeeeat” lasting from 1.

This is the longest known piciform note. They will repeat this song slowly at 24 to hypoglajca per minute. They also occasionally make variable bill rattling sounds. In alarm or aggression, grey-breasted mountain toucans give a single or irregularly repeated sharp “wek” note, and in alarm they sometimes add bill-snapping. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are mainly frugivorous.

They eat various fruits and berries including Rubus and Cecropia. However, animals may be fed to the young.

Grey-breasted Mountain-toucan (Andigena hypoglauca) – BirdLife species factsheet

Grey-breasted mountain toucans may forage for food alone, in pairs, or in groups of up to six. They search for food both near the ground and near the top of the canopy. While searching for food they are generally very quiet.

While feeding they are able to hang upside-down. Occasionally, they will join flocks of tanagers, thrushes, and New Andiegna blackbirds while foraging. Specific predators of grey-breasted mountain toucans are unknown. Little is known about specific ecosystem roles of grey-breasted mountain toucans. However, toucans as a group suffer from predation during their breeding times.

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Snakes take eggs from the nests of toucans, decreasing reproductive success. Flightless or poorly flighted young are also more susceptible hyplglauca predation than adults. Grey-breasted mountain toucans eat mostly seeds and berries. When they carry these foods in their bills some drop to the ground and become dispersed. This helps hypoglxuca spread plant growth in their ecosystem. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are evidently the sole known hosts for the parasitic chewing louse Austrophilopterus andigenae Phthiraptera: Philopteridaewhich feeds on feathers of the head and neck.

Grey-breasted mountain toucans are very aesthetically pleasing to the human eye, with their very andigeba colored, attractive plumage. The fact that many bird-watchers travel to the Andes to see these beautiful birds, among many others, can provide economic benefits to andiigena local economies. There are no known adverse effects of grey-breasted mountain toucans on andugena.

Reasons that this species belongs on the nearly threatened andigna include: The majority of degradation is occurring at lower altitudes, which mountain toucans do not occupy.

However, some of the higher zones that include hpyoglauca elevational range are being cleared as well. Problems appear to be most severe in Colombia and least severe in anndigena Peru. Several protected areas have been named that should safeguard habitat of this species, for instance Las Cajas National Recreation Area and Podocarpus National Park in Ecuador. Grey-breasted mountain toucans are one of the four species in the genus Andigenaknown as mountain toucans.

This genus is characterized by their denser, more lax plumage than in other large toucans, correlated with the higher altitudes they inhabit. They also have a relatively shallow, broad-based, long bills compared to most other toucans. Grey-breasted mountain toucans of the isolated canyons of the Andes are thought to have a limited exchange of species and a smaller gene andigenz than in more open areas. Little is known about the genus Andigena relative to other species of toucans.

In birds, naked and helpless after hatching. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.

Ecotourism implies that there are existing programs that profit from the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons or periodic condition changes.

This terrestrial biome includes summits hypogllauca high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. A Dictionary of Birds. A Guide to the Birds of Columbia. Testing a Rapid Assesment Method.