Handreiking ‘Onderzoek integriteitsschendingen politieke ambtsdragers’ Discriminatie · Seksuele Intimidatie · Verbale agressie en geweld · Fysieke. Handreiking voor lokale vei- ligheidsarrangementen. .. Van kwaad tot erger: wordt geweld nu ook gedemocra- tiseerd? ook de dreiging van terrorisme en de problematiek van agressieve passagiers ko- men aan bod in. van agressie of geweld op het werk, waarvan ongeveer een derde langer Onder agressie en geweld wordt verstaan voorvallen waarbij een.

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Emergency responders are important for the safety of society by reducing the risk of crimes, deaths and diseases, as they are tasked with not only monitoring compliance with regulations e. Because they are often sent to the front line, this group of professionals has specific risks of experiencing trauma while performing their duties. One of these traumatic experiences is experiencing violence at work, directed towards the professionals. Bleijendaal, Agressie en geweld tegen politiemensen [Aggression and violence directed at police] Studies have shown that experiencing workplace violence may have several, potentially severe, consequences.

For example studies suggest that experiencing workplace violence may result in increased feelings of distress, 5 x T. Driessen, Geweld tegen werknemers in de openbare ruimte [ Violence against Employees in the Semi- Public Space ] Roorda, Agressie en geweld tegen werknemers met een publieke taak [ Aggression and Violence against Employees with a Public Task ]at It should be noted that studies on workplace violence rarely have a longitudinal design, measuring violence and characteristics over time, and it is thus possible that some of these characteristics were present before experiencing workplace violence and were not a result from experiencing workplace violence.

Omgaan met fysiek agressief gedrag by Stephanie Peters on Prezi

However, the longitudinal studies that were available suggest that professionals may suffer from psychological consequences after experiencing workplace violence. Thus, workplace violence against emergency responders can affect professionals and organisations. Therefore, reducing workplace violence of emergency responders is a priority for the political agenda in many countries.

Measures that have been taken to prevent workplace violence against public sector professionals are encouraging organisations to communicate which behaviours of citizens are and are not acceptable, and to provide training to professionals.

In addition, the maximum sentence demanded for violent offenders may be raised up to three times the regular maximum sentence if the victim is a public sector professional. While all high-risk professions may frequently experience violence, it has been widely shown in general victimisation studies that experiencing violence is not equally distributed.

Having experienced victimisation has often been found to be the strongest correlate of subsequent experiences of violence or other crimes, for many populations, 15 x See e. Zwirs, Geweld tegen de politie: De rol van mentale processen van de politieambtenaar [ Violence against the Police: According to survey studies, some professionals experience workplace violence relatively often and others experience relatively little workplace violence.

This is often considered a limitation of victimisation surveys, as it does not allow the separation of actual and perceived victimisation.

However, if we are interested in decreasing experiences of victimisation, this combination of frequency and remembrance or harm of victimisation could be considered our concept of interest in victimisation studies.

This unequal distribution is related to the profession of people, but victimisation experiences are also unequally distributed within specific professions.

Bleijendaal, Slachtofferprofielen [ Victim Profiles ] ; T. The unequal distribution within professions will be illustrated by a figure that was derived from the study of Fischer and Van Reemst. The study was based on data from the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, who have monitored workplace violence agrssie the public sector in the Netherlands.

As can be seen in Figure 1, a relatively large percentage of professionals experienced only a agerssie percentage of total workplace violence incidences, whereas a small percentage of professionals experienced a high percentage of total workplace violence incidences.

The results of this study suggest that, also within specific professions, some professionals experience more workplace violence than others. Overall, the differences in experiencing workplace violence raise the following question: This knowledge is needed to reduce external workplace violence in the future and to provide directions for future studies. This paper will present a theoretical framework to study variations in workplace violence experienced by emergency responders, by applying and integrating criminological theories that have been used in victimology, and highlighting empirical applications and ethical dilemmas related to the theories.


With permission from Fischer and Van Reemst, above n.

For detailed information about the categories, see the publication. This paper makes contributions to the literature on theory development of workplace violence against emergency responders: Therefore, classic victimisation theories have rarely been applied to workplace violence against emergency responders. In this paper, first, the context of workplace violence handrreiking emergency responders will be described, including the function of emergency responders, and the nature and extent of workplace violence against emergency responders.

Second, criminal hanxreiking theories and personal vulnerability notions originating from the victim precipitation theory will be applied to experiencing workplace violence. These two victimological perspectives address the role of situational and victim characteristics in victimisation.

The results from studies about correlates of workplace violence of emergency responders will be described in relation to these theories, and arising opportunities for future research will be described.

The three groups of professionals working as emergency responders police officers, firefighters and emergency medical workers share many common work circumstances because they all respond to emergencies and are needed for public agresssie. All emergency responders are thought to have a relatively high risk of experiencing violence at work, because of the frequent contact with citizens or patients, family or bystandersthe negative emotions and frustrations an emergency may cause to these citizens and the broad variety of citizens they deal with, including citizens who are more likely to be offenders, such as people who are under the influence of alcohol or drugs or have a mental illness.

In addition to these similarities, each profession is unique. Police officers enforce laws and de-escalate potential threats, firefighters safeguard people by rescuing or fire extinguishing, and emergency medical workers provide medical care before arriving at the hospital. Although it will not be possible to give an exhaustive list of differences in this paper, I will describe some additional differences between the professions that might influence professional-citizen interactions.

First, police officers can legitimately use physical force in interaction with citizens 25 x See e. Second, firefighters leave for an emergency with more professionals than police officers and emergency medical workers.

handreiking agressie en geweld pdf

Third, the frequency of contact of citizens varies between professions, with police officers having the most and firefighters having the least contact with citizens. Police officers may remain outside even if no emergency calls were received, whereas many firefighters work as volunteers and only work if a call was received. Lastly, in severe or complex emergencies, the three professions may work together, each having their own work task.

These differences in work situations may cause differences in professional-citizen interactions and experienced workplace violence EWPV. For example studies in the general health care sector have indicated that different occupations may result in differences in EWPV and correlates of EWPV.

However, because of their similarities, all have a heightened risk of experiencing workplace victimisation. Therefore, it is important to study workplace violence in this population. Regarding the nature of external workplace violence, studies have shown that workplace violence can take physical and psychological shapes.

This includes being hit, punched and grabbed physicalbeing yelled at and being called names psychological. Threats are sometimes studied as a separate type or included in the definition of psychological workplace violenceas are sexual harassment and being discriminated against. Overall, types of workplace violence that have been addressed in studies have varied greatly. In this paper, I focus on external workplace victimisation. I will not focus on internal workplace violencewhich is violence initiated by an individual within the organisation, for example bullying or assault between workers or between a supervisor and a worker, and is more often the focus of research.

External workplace violence occurs more frequently 30 x B. Specifically, emergency responders most often experience victimisation from people they provide a safety service to. The extent of external workplace violence varies depending on the definition of workplace violence. Their conceptualisation of workplace violence included five types of behaviour: It should be noted that, in their research, police officers who work in other departments, including those who work mostly behind desks were included, which suggests that the percentage of police officers who experienced workplace violence among those who respond to emergency calls might be higher.

Studies have suggested that emergency responders most commonly experience psychological workplace violence, followed by physical and sexual workplace violence. Victimisation is generally considered to be an interaction between the offender and victim. Garofalo, Victims of Personal Crime: These were developed around the same time late s and are often used in combination.


Meier and Miethe 37 x R. Miethe, Crime and Its Social Context: I will first explain criminal opportunity theories, after which I will present to what extent these theories have been tested and supported in external workplace violence studies. In a nutshell, criminal opportunity theories claim that people vary in the likelihood of experiencing victimisation because they differ in the activities they perform.

These lifestyles are said to explain the differences in exposure to dangerous time, place and others.

The routine activity theory adds that routine activity influences the convergence in time and space of three important elements: Although originally the routine activity theory has been developed to explain differences in crime rates instead of victimisation risks, this theory has been applied across units of analysis, including victimisation.

This means that victimisation is more likely to occur if an individual is in the presence of a motivated offender, is a suitable target e. For example someone who is present in high crime areas and among repeat offenders more often is thought to be more likely to be a victim, than someone who rarely finds him or herself in these situations.

gewrld In both theories, the main focus is on the opportunity to become a victim, provided by their activities and lifestyle, instead of the personal motivations of offenders to commit crime. Overall, the idea that victimisation risks vary because of variations in activities and related socio-demographic characteristics is still dominant in many victimisation studies. Socio-demographic characteristics that have previously been studied in relation to hhandreiking violence of emergency responders are typically age and gender.

Often, men are found to dn more workplace violence than females, 44 x M. Pach, Geweld tegen de politie in uitgaansgebieden [ Violence against the Police in Nightlife ] ; J. Often, younger professionals are found to be more likely to experience workplace violence. No association was found between ethnicity and victimisation handreiiking professionals.

As described, these characteristics are theoretically related to workplace violence by people having specific lifestyles because of their socio-demographic characteristics.

However, studies have not shown which lifestyle characteristics are mediating the relationship between being young and male, and experiencing workplace violence. For example, theoretically, young professionals could experience more victimisation, because they have had less experience and training lacking safety precautions or because older professionals have less contact with citizens possibly motivated offenders because they do more desk work.

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According to previous studies, various situational characteristics explain differences in gewelld of emergency responders. To explain differences in workplace violence experiences between emergency responders, the profession itself is an important situational indicator. The profession determines the situation professionals are in and the type of contact they have with citizens as gewelv in para.

However, other characteristics are important to explain differences in victimisation within professions. Professionals who are more in contact with people are more likely to experience victimisation, as indicated by studies that found working more hours per week and having more contact with citizens to be related to external workplace violence.

Driessen, Geweld tegen de brandweer [ Violence against Firefighters ] ; Gates et al. In addition, the type of contact with citizens including location and time of contact handrfiking the type of citizens they geweeld with are related to experiencing workplace violence. According to studies, professionals experience more workplace violence if they work in economically depressed areas, in urban agresdie, in public spaces, on their own, during the evening or at agresie, or, more often, in contact with citizens who are unknown to the professional.

Geweldgebruik van en tegen de politie [ Police Violence: Violence by and against the Police ] Regarding their work location, professionals who work in an urban area are found to experience more workplace victimisation. Also, professionals who work with people who use alcohol or drugs, who have previously been in contact with the police or who have a mental illness are more likely to experience external workplace violence.

All these characteristics seem related to how often professionals are in the presence of possible motivated offenders or lack guardianship.